The first Continental Congress was convened in 1774 in response to growing tensions between the colonies, culminating in the passage of the Intolerable Acts by the British Parliament. It met for about six weeks and attempted to repair the broken relationship between Britain and the colonies while asserting the rights of the colonists, promulgating and adopting the Continental Association (a unique trade embargo against Britain), and calling for a second Congress. The Second Continental Congress met in 1775 after the outbreak of hostilities in Massachusetts. Shortly after the meeting, this Second Congress sent the Olive Branch petition to King George III and elected George Washington to lead the new Continental Army. After peace failed, the same Congress drafted and passed the resolution on independence and declaration of independence in July 1776, proclaiming that the former colonies were now independent sovereign states. For most of colonial history, the British Crown was the only political institution to unite the American colonies. However, the imperial crisis of the 1760s and 1770s led the colonies to ever greater unity. Americans in the 13 colonies united in opposing the new system of imperial taxation introduced by the British government in 1765. That year, the Stamp Act – the first direct domestic tax imposed on settlers by the British Parliament – provoked concerted resistance within the colonies. Nine colonial assemblies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress, an extra-legal convention that met to coordinate the colony`s response to the new tax.
Although the Stamp Act Congress was short-lived, he alluded to the strengthened unity among the colonies that would soon follow. Congress also voted to reconvene the following year if their complaints were not satisfactorily addressed. In anticipation of the opportunity to convene a second convention, the delegates decided to send letters of invitation to the colonies that had not joined them in Philadelphia, including: Quebec, Saint John Island, Nova Scotia, Georgia, East Florida and West Florida.  Of these, only Georgia will finally send delegates to the next congress. When the congress was held on 5. In September 1774, Peyton Randolph of Virginia was appointed president of the First Continental Congress. One of the first decisions of Congress was to approve the Suffolk Resolutions, which were passed in Suffolk County, Massachusetts. The Suffolk Resolutions ordered citizens to disobey intolerable acts, refuse imported British goods, and set up a militia. The early support of the Suffolk Resolves by Congress was a clear sign of the mood and spirit of Carpenters` Hall. There is a long debate about the effectiveness of Congress as an organization.  Perhaps the first critic was General George Washington.
In an address to his officers in Newburgh, New York, on the 15th. In March 1783, responding to complaints that Congress had not funded their salaries and pensions, he declared that he believed Congress would do «justice» to the army and eventually pay the soldiers. «But like all other large organizations, where there are a variety of different interests to reconcile, their deliberations are slow.» Thomas Paine was an English-born political philosopher and writer who supported revolutionary causes in America and Europe. «Common Sense» was published in 1776 with international success and was the first pamphlet advocating American independence. According to the writing of «The American. Peyton Randolph was elected president of Congress on opening day, and he served until March 22. Henry Middleton was elected in his place for the remainder of the session. Charles Thomson, head of the Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence, was elected Secretary of Congress.  Rules adopted by delegates should guarantee equal rights for participants and promote freedom of debate.  Washington`s support for the use of non-imports as bargaining chips against the British dates back to 1769 in letters between him and George Mason.
When the colonies began to publicly support non-importation, Bryan Fairfax, a longtime friend of Washington, wrote to him urging him not to support the Continental Association and instead to petition Parliament. Washington rejected this proposal, writing: «We have already asked His Majesty in as humble and conscientious a manner as the subjects could.» 1 Washington, like many delegates to the First Continental Congress, no longer saw petitions as a useful tool for changing the way Parliament was conducted. Congress first met in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774, with delegates from each of the 13 colonies except Georgia. On October 20, Congress passed regulations, which stipulated that if the intolerable acts were not repealed by December 1, 1774, a boycott of British goods in the colonies would begin. The articles also described plans for an export embargo if the intolerable acts were not repealed by September 10, 1775. Benjamin Franklin had advanced the idea of such a meeting the previous year, but he could not convince the colonies of its necessity until the British navy blockaded Boston Harbor and Parliament passed the intolerable punitive laws in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. During the congress, delegates organized an economic boycott of Britain in protest and asked the king to remedy the grievances. The colonies were united in their efforts to demonstrate their authority to the homeland by virtue of their common concerns and unity; But their ultimate goals were not coherent. Most of the delegates were not yet ready to break with Britain, but they desperately wanted the King and Parliament to act in the way they thought was fairer.